- Historian c.484-t30 BC.
Herodotus is regarded as the 'Father of History'. The writings of Herodotus were the first attempt to separate fantasy from firsthand observation and factual evidence made available to the author.Born at Halicarnassus between 490 and 480 BC, Herodotus travelled extensively and visited Egypt in c.450 BC, when the country was under *Persian domination. He eventually retired to Thurii, in Italy, where he expanded his Histories which provided an account of the events which led to the conflict between Greece and Persia. Book Two, called 'Euterpe', is a digression in which he concentrates on Egypt and includes much information from his own experience there as a tourist with a lively and enquiring mind. His travels in Egypt probably took him as far as the First Cataract, although his emphasis on the Delta region and the absence of any detailed account of the Theban monuments have led to speculation that his travels may not have been as widespread as he claimed. Also, although he was a clever reporter and wrote in a lively and informative manner, he obtained some of his facts from conversations with less than accurate informants, whom he met en route. Nevertheless, this provides the first comprehensive account of Egypt composed by a foreigner which has survived intact, and his example was followed, less successfully, by later writers such as *Diodorus Siculus and *Strabo.Although some of the popular traditions that he quotes were not accurate and other statements cannot be checked against confirmed evidence, modern investigations have supported other claims that he makes and, for the later period of Egypt's history, he remains one of the major and most important sources.The book is primarily a historical and geographical treatise; it deals with the geographical formations and the features of the landscape, including the source and inundation of the Nile, and the plants and animals, dealing particularly with the strange characteristics of the hippopotamus, ibis, phoenix and crocodile. The latter were adorned with gold earrings and bracelets and were fed with human victims; after death they were mummified.Herodotus' account of the history of Egypt is based on information given to him by the priests, and it contains many inaccuracies, although he correctly named Menes as the first king who built the first town. The characters and actions of *Cheops, *Chephren and *Mycerinus are also described, and he includes personal details such as *Amasis' frequent drunkenness. Herodotus also comments on the hieroglyphic system as well as the monuments he visited; these included the pyramids (which he correctly identified as royal burial-places), the Labyrinth and Lake Moeris in the Fayoum, temples at Sais and Bubastis, and the great city of Memphis.He was the first foreign observer to describe the Egyptian religious beliefs and customs: festivals, magical rites, interpretation of dreams, and animal cults. He claimed that the Egyptians were the most religious of people and he tried to identify the forerunners of the Greek gods amongst the Egyptian pantheon. His description of the process of mummification remains one of the basic sources of knowledge of these techniques, and modern scientific investigations have shown that his account is mainly accurate. However, the reason he gives for the development of this custom—to preserve the body so that the soul (having passed through various animal incarnations) could return to it on a future occasion—was not correct, because the Egyptians did not believe in the transmigration of souls.Despite its shortcomings, Herodotus' account of Egypt nevertheless provides a stimulating and entertaining view seen through the eyes of an early traveller.BIBL. Herodotus, The Histories Book II. London: 1939; Africa, T.W. Herodotus and Diodorus on Egypt. JNES 22 (1963) pp. 254 ff.; Engelbach, R. and Derry, D.E. Introduction: Herodotus with notes on his Text. Ann. Serv. 41 (1942) pp. 235-69; Herodotus. The Histories. Harmondsworth: 1972.Biographical Dictionary of Ancient Egypt by Rosalie and Antony E. David* * *(c. 484–420 BC)Greek author from Halicarnassus. He visited Egypt during the course of his travels, and his The Histories (c. 440 BC) contains valuable information about Egyptian history and customs. Much of this information would have been supplied by Egyptian priests and is uneven in content.See also Manetho.Historical Dictionary Of Ancient Egypt by Morris L. Bierbrier
Ancient Egypt. A Reference Guide. EdwART. 2011.
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HERODOTUS° — (fifth century B.C.E.), Greek historian. He notes that the Phoenicians and the Syrians of Palestine, have, on their own testimony, learned the practice of circumcision from the Egyptians (Historiae, 2:104; cf. Jos., Ant., 8:262; Apion, 1:169).… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
HERODOTUS — alius quidam auctor, frequens in Scriptorum vett. ore. Vide Voss. toties laudatum, de Hist. Gr. p. 374. et 375 … Hofmann J. Lexicon universale
Herodotus — [hə räd′ə təs] 484? 425? B.C.; Gr. historian: called the Father of History … English World dictionary
Herodotus — Infobox Person name = Herodotus image size = 220px caption = Ostensible bust of Herodotus birth date = circa 484 BC birth place = Halicarnassus, Caria, Asia Minor death date = circa 425 BC death place = Thurii, Sicily or Pella, Macedon occupation … Wikipedia
Herodotus — /heuh rod euh teuhs/, n. 484? 425? B.C., Greek historian. * * * born 484?, Helicarnassus, Asia Minor died 430/420 BC Greek historian. He resided in Athens and then in Thurii in southern Italy. His travels covered a large part of the Persian… … Universalium
Herodotus — Büste von Herodot Herodot von Halikarnass(os) (griech. Ἡρόδοτος, Hēródotos, * 490/480 v. Chr.; † um 424 v. Chr.) war ein antiker griechischer Historiograph, Geograph und Völkerkundler. Er wurde von … Deutsch Wikipedia
Herodotus — (ca. 485 B.c. ca. 425 b.c.) A noted Greek historian who wrote what modern scholars view as the world s first conventional history book, today called the Histories, which contains much valuable information about ancient Mesopotamia. The main… … Ancient Mesopotamia dictioary
Herodotus — biographical name circa 484 between 430 and 420 B.C. Greek historian • Herodotean adjective … New Collegiate Dictionary
Herodotus — noun An ancient historian who lived from 484 to 425 BC. See Also: Herodotean … Wiktionary
HERODOTUS — (fl. C. 484–420 B.C.) Greek traveler and historian. He was born at Halicarnassus in Asia Minor, was exiled to Samos, lived in Athens, and died in Sicily. He wrote nine books of Histories that chronicle the wars between the Greeks and the… … Historical Dictionary of Mesopotamia